Sleep Disorders

Sleep Disorders

Sleep is an important element for a happy, healthy life, yet is often overlooked and undervalued in our busy society. Seventy million people suffer from chronic, severe sleep disorders in the United States alone. That means nearly one of every four Americans has a sleep problem. 

If you have any issues related to sleep whether due to non restorative sleep, sleeping too much, excessive daytime sleepiness (falling asleep at inappropriate times), difficulty falling or staying asleep, or abnormal behaviors associated with sleep, it could be a sign that you have a sleep disorder.

Snoring and sleep related breathing disorders

Sleep related disorders include snoring, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), central sleep apnea (CSA), upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS), and sleep related hypoventilation or hypoxemic sysdromes.

Snoring

A very common condition caused by the obstruction of air into the lungs. The "extra" air gets redirected into the mouth, creating a vibration of the soft tissue of the palate.

Snoring

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)

Occurs when a patient stops breathing during periods of sleep; usually as a result of blockage (obstruction) in the airway.

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)

Central sleep apnea (CSA)

Pauses in breathing while asleep that are not caused by an obstruction but rather by a disorder of the central nervous system.

Central sleep apnea (CSA)

Upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS)

A condition in which the upper airway is reduced during sleep, resulting in disturbed sleep; can lead to snoring, daytime sleepiness, cognitive impairment, un-refreshing sleep, and frequent arousals from sleep.

Upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS)

Sleep related hypoventilation or hypoxemic syndromes

May be the result of a decreased response to low oxygen or high carbon dioxide during wakefulness and sleep and are characterized by frequent episodes of shallow breathing lasting longer than 10 seconds during sleep.

Sleep related hypoventilation or hypoxemic syndromes
Insomnia

Insomnia

A common sleep disorder defined by persistent difficulties falling and/or staying asleep and/or non-restorative sleep.

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Shift work and circadian rhythm disorders

Circadian rhythm sleep disorders involve either difficulty falling asleep, waking up during the sleep cycle or waking up too early and being unable to fall back to sleep. 

Shift work sleep disorder

A circadian sleep disorder in which a person experiences a constant or recurrent pattern of sleep interruption due to shift work schedule, resulting in difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep and/or excessive sleepiness when awake.

Shift work sleep disorder

Delayed sleep phase syndrome

A disorder in which the timing of sleep and the peak period of alertness are delayed several hours relative to societal clock.

Delayed sleep phase syndrome

Circadian rhythm disorders

A family of sleep disorders affecting the timing of sleep; people with circadian rhythm sleep disorders are unable to sleep and wake at the times required for normal work, school, and social needs.

Circadian rhythm disorders

Advanced sleep phase syndrome

A disorder in which the timing of sleep and the peak period of alertness are advanced several hours relative to societal clock.

Advanced sleep phase syndrome

Restless legs syndrome & periodic limb movements during sleep

Periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) and restless legs syndrome (RLS) are two sleep disorders characterized by abnormal leg movements and are responsible for deterioration in sleep quality.

Restless legs syndrome (RLS)

A neurological disorder characterized by throbbing, pulling, creeping, or other unpleasant sensations in the legs, which is typically alleviated with movement.

Restless legs syndrome (RLS)

Periodic limb movement syndrome (PLMS)

A sleep disorder characterized by rhythmic movements of the limbs during sleep. The movements typically involve the legs, but upper extremity movements may also occur.

Periodic limb movement syndrome (PLMS)

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Pediatric disorders

Sleep problems and a lack of sleep can have negative effects on children's performance in school, during extracurricular activities, and in social relationships.

Pediatric sleep disorders

Sleep disorders in children include physiological problems such as obstructive sleep apnea abnormal, or disruptive behaviors during sleep such as sleepwalking or onset of conditions such as restless legs syndrome or excessive sleepiness.

Pediatric sleep disorders

Arousal disorders

A group of disorders due to an abnormal arousal mechanism; episodes may include confused arousal, sleepwalking and sleep terrors.

Arousal disorders

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Narcolepsy and other
hypersomnias (excessive sleep)

Characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, hypersomnia is a term that refers either to an excessive quantity of daily sleep or a difficulty to stay awake during the day, or both.

Narcolepsy

A sleep disorder that causes excessive sleepiness, abnormal REM sleep, and frequent daytime sleep attacks.

Narcolepsy

Idiopathic hypersomnia

Persistent sleepiness lasting more than 3 months without abnormal issues with enter REM sleep.

Idiopathic hypersomnia

Recurrent hypersomnia
(Kleine Levin syndrome)

A rare sleep disorder characterized by persistent episodic hypersomnia and cognitive or mood changes.

Recurrent hypersomnia (Kleine Levin syndrome)

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Nighttime sleep behaviors

Parasomnia is a catchall term for unusual behaviors that people experience prior to falling asleep, while asleep, or during the arousal period between sleep and wakefulness. 

Nighttime sleep behaviors
(parasomnias)

A range of disorders involving abnormal behaviors during sleep, such as sleep walking or talking, sleep terrors, REM issues, sleep paralysis or nightmares.  These nighttime activities can occur at any age.

Nighttime sleep behaviors (parasomnias)

Sleep walking/talking

Sleepwalking, also known as Somnambulism, is a condition in which a sleeping person exhibits behaviors associated with being awake, appears to be awake but is actually still sleeping. Sleep talking is when an individual vocalizes in their sleep, anything from a few words to whole conversations.

Sleep walking/talking

Sleep terrors

Also called "night terrors," episodes characterized by extreme terror and a temporary inability to attain full consciousness.

Sleep terrors

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